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In the U.S., the Smart Fortwo is a small gasoline-powered two-seater that is rated at 33/41mpg. (Other parts of the world get a diesel version with significantly better mpg). The existing Smart gas car compares to plug-in vehicles like any other gas car--a lower initial cost, but higher fuel and maintenance costs, more pollution, reliance on foreign oil, etc. As of late 2010, Smart is also offering the Smart ED, an electric version with an 84-mile range. This is currently what they call "Phase 2", an experimental offering. It is not very quick, and limited to 60mph. Only 250 will be offered, only for lease--4 years at $599/month. In 2012 they plan to offer a more powerful electric version as a regular model; that is expected to be cheaper as well.
Although availability is currently the limiting factor, we will ignore it for now and assume many more cars will arrive soon. Considered only from a technology perspective, the saturation point for PHEVs could theoretically be 100% as PHEVs don't require any changes from the driver. Even plugging in, while the whole point of the vehicle, is not required. The most likely limiting factor is cost. The extra batteries (their price and weight) make a PHEV more expensive than a similar gas car. Similarly, the gas engine and all of its trappings make a PHEV generally more expensive than a BEV, although they are hard to compare directly because the ranges are not equivalent. At some point, the premium for a PHEV will be small enough that most people will be happy to pay it to avoid the anticipated fueling costs of a regular gas car, as well as the other disadvantages of burning petroleum. For some, that point is now. If gas prices rise 50% (or the premium is lowered by a similar amount), that point would probably be reached for a majority of buyers. If gas doubles, that theoretical limit of 100% may become a reality. PHEVs already have to worry about BEV competitors. If BEV refueling issues go away--whether through a network of fast chargers, or battery swapping, or new battery chemistries with great range--the simplicity of BEVs may win many converts from PHEVs.

New plug-in vehicles come with chargers located inside the cars, plus cords and other equipment to plug into convention 120-volt electrical outlets. For faster charging, though, many drivers will want to buy Electric Vehicle Service Equipment (EVSE), known informally as a charging station, in order to plug into a 240-volt outlet. See our Accessory Tracker to compare charging station options. All come with the same "J connector" that should allow any plug-in vehicle to connect to any charging station.

Simply: No. Many people have proposed adding generators to EVs to allow the vehicles to partially recharge themselves. Some suggest generators on the wheels or drive shaft while others suggest small wind turbines behind the grille or on the roof. In each case, more energy would be consumed to turn the generators than could ever be recaptured. Attempting to generate while driving would result in a net loss of range.

There is no free lunch. Energy conversions are never 100% efficient, so every time we convert one form of energy to another, we lose some of that energy. We lose energy when we charge an EV's battery from the wall outlet. We lose energy when we take charge out of the EV's battery to push the car down the road. If we tried to convert the energy from the moving car back into battery charge, we would again lose energy.

Installing a generator on an EV would be akin to driving with the brakes on. For this reason, modern hybrids and EVs only recapture electrical charge when slowing down. The kinetic energy of the vehicle in motion is partially converted -- by the electric motor working in reverse -- into electricity that can be added back to the battery. This advantageous process slows the vehicle by capturing the vehicle's kinetic energy that is normally wasted to heat with traditional brakes. The problem comes when we do NOT want to slow down while simultaneously converting the kinetic energy of the car into battery charge. Spinning a generator will always require energy input. And that energy input will always slow the vehicle. To overcome this "slowing force" caused by the generator, additional energy must be consumed from the vehicle's battery to maintain speed. Because of the conversion losses mentioned earlier, more energy will be consumed than will be replaced. The ironic result of "self charging" would be a net loss of charge (resulting in shorter range).

Hybrid Car Analysis



Lower emissions than most gasoline cars. Gasoline only. Can't plug in.
Somewhat better gasoline mileage than regular gas cars. Still dependent on oil companies and foreign despots.
Longer range than pure battery electric cars (though the same range as plug-in hybrids).
Not zero emissions.
Most produce no emissions when car is stopped. Still require normal mechanical maintenance & repairs.

Data suggest there are no harmful electromagnetic emissions from plug-in cars. There is no broad agreement in the United States over what level of exposure to electromagnetic fields may constitute a health hazard, and there are no federal standards for allowable exposure levels. A National Institutes of Health report shows (on page 41) that electric cars and buses have lower electromagnetic fields than conventional gasoline cars, similar to findings reported in a 1999 study by the U.S. Department of Energy.

Electric vehicles are most certainly not silent. At parking-lot speeds they make as much noise via various fans, pumps and tire noise as most modern internal-combustion engine vehicles. At high speeds the wind and tire noise is comparable to any car. And like so many other issues surrounding the EV, this "problem" was addressed years ago. The EV1 had a back-up warning, as well as a pedestrian alert that could be activated by the driver when needed.

Adding a  constant noise to the cars would only serve to increase ambient noise levels, subsequently lowering individual awareness and increasing noise pollution in our environment. By making all cars quiet, we would be safer than by making quiet cars louder. Ultimately, it's the driver's responsibility to operate any vehicle safely.

Putting solar photovoltaics directly on EVs is nice but not adequate. Most solar panels would add too much weight to an EV to be worthwhile. Some newer, lighter, flexible PV technology could generate power for interior climate control or minor tasks, but not enough to power a car a significant distance. Gotta have that plug.

Windmills on EVs don't make sense. The drag they create reduces efficiency, necessitating more energy to run the car. Read More.

Most people recharge overnight in their own garage, carport or driveway, but there are public chargers for electric cars as well in parking garages and shopping centers. Federal, state and local governments and Air Quality Management Districts are funding installation of thousands of charging stations beginning in late 2010. See to find public chargers in your area.

See our Plug-in Vehicle Tracker for the latest updates on which vehicles are available, and others coming soon. Then check our list of federal and state incentives that may help you buy the car, and be sure to investigate incentives from your local government and Air Quality Management District too. The easiest way to stay abreast of all the major announcements is to join Plug In America to receive our monthly newsletter and a free annual copy of our valuable consumer resource guide, Charged Up & Ready To Roll: The Definitive Guide To Plug-in Electric Vehicles.

Much less than it costs to buy gasoline. Exactly how much will vary depending on the vehicle and electricity rates. On average, it will be less than $1 to charge a plug-in hybrid and $2-$4 for an all-electric car. Your overall energy bill will be lowered by driving with electricity. EVs are so efficient that the cost per mile driven is significantly less than with a gasoline-powered car. For instance, a 2002 Toyota RAV4 will travel 100 miles on 4 gallons of gasoline. At $2.50/gallon, this is $10.00. A 2002 Toyota RAV4-EV will travel 100 miles on 30 kWh of electricity. At 10 cents per kWh, this is $3.00.

EVs are the most efficient cars on the road. See the federal government's report on energy use:

Toyota RAV4 EV: 887 BTU/mile (rated 112 miles per gallon equivalent)

Toyota Prius: 2250 BTU/mile

Toyota RAV4 Gas: 4423 BTU/mile

Hydrogen vehicles are the "car of the future," and probably always will be. There are two types of hydrogen cars. Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) are EVs, but instead of getting their electricity from batteries charged from the grid, they get their power from fuel cells using hydrogen as the energy carrier. The tricky question is, where does the hydrogen come from?

FCVs use four times as much electricity on a per-mile basis as a battery EV if the hydrogen is obtained through the process called electrolysis. So, you would need four times the number of solar panels to go the same distance as you would in a battery EV.FCVs are 40% less efficient than battery EVs if the hydrogen is obtained through reformation of hydrocarbon fuels (mainly from natural gas), and this process releases significant quantities of CO2 into the atmosphere. FCVs have many difficult and expensive engineering challenges to solve before they will ever be widely available, and even then, the energy required per mile will probably still be substantially higher than for battery EVs.

Alternatively, internal combustion engines (ICEs) can be made to burn hydrogen instead of gasoline. Even these fairly simple conversions are expensive, and the energy required is, again, much higher per mile than with EVs. In addition, ICE hydrogen-burning (H2) cars still have some emissions and cannot be considered zero-emission vehicles.

And then there's the question of infrastructure for refueling. The electrical grid already exists for plug-in vehicles, but building a hydrogen refueling network would cost billions of dollars, assuming that safety problems with transporting and storing hydrogen can be solved..

The bottom line is that there is no advantage to using FCVs or H2 ICE technologies over battery EVs. See Joseph Romm's excellent book The Hype About Hydrogen: Fact and Fiction in the Race to Save the Climate. Read more: Lisa Zyga - | Ulf Bossel - European Union Fuel Cell Forum

No. Hydrogen fuel cell cars are 4X less efficient than battery EVs if the hydrogen is produced from electricity. It's 1.4X less efficient if made from natural gas. Where and how will the hydrogen be stored? Who will pay the billions required for this new infrastructure? (Hint - us taxpayers.) With plug-in cars, the infrastructure is already in place - the electric grid.

Vehicle batteries have an excellent reycling record that will get even better with plug-in vehicles. Every car in the world has a lead-acid battery, the most toxic metal used for batteries. Even with its low value as scrap, the recycling rate for lead-acid batteries is about 98% in the U.S. Plug-in vehicles use newer battery chemistries such as NiMH and Li-Ion. Their metals are inherently more valuable than lead. It is illegal to dispose of these batteries in a landfill and their value will ensure that they are recycled.

But even before they're ready for recycling, plug-in vehicle batteries will have a second life. Read more on our PIA Positions page.

Not for many years. GM and Nissan offer warranties covering 8 years or 100,000 miles of driving on the lithium-ion batteries in the Volt or the Leaf. Nickel-metal hydride batteries (NiMH) in the previous generation of EVs are proving to have very long lives. Several electric cars with over 100,000 miles have been reported with virtually no range degradation.

That depends on the amperage of the charging system and the size of the battery. Keep in mind that most of the time, the battery will not be empty when you plug in, thus reducing charging time.

To recharge a completely empty car battery from an ordinary 120-volt socket, the Chevy Volt plug-in hybrid would need 10 hours and the Nissan Leaf EV would need 20 hours.

Using a faster 240-volt outlet and a charging station, the Volt recharges in about 4 hours and the Leaf in 8 hours. See our Accessory Tracker page for comparisoins of charging stations.

Some states are beginning to install fast-charging stations along highways that can recharge a car to 80% of battery capacity in less than 30 minutes.

You charge them back up. When electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrids (PHEVs) are commonplace, charging stations will be everywhere, and thousand of them are being installed in the coming year thanks for government stimulus funds. Restaurants, grocery stores and other retail establishments will offer free or low-cost charging as enticements to get customers. Of course, anyone with access to a plug at home will set the car's timer to charge late at night, when cheap surplus power is readily available. Studies indicate that 80% of Americans have ready access to plugs where they park at night. PHEVs will not need to be charged since their internal combustion engine allows the same range as gasoline cars for long trips. However, to minimize pollution, cost, and the other ills associated with the use of oil, PHEV drivers would do well to plug in whenever possible to maximize the use of the electric grid.

Battery electric vehicles are the most dependable vehicles. Well-made production EVs have the potential to last as long or longer than gasoline automobiles, with less regular maintenance. There are many fewer moving parts in an EV, and therefore less ongoing preventative maintenance. Brake life is significantly extended since the motor is used to slow the car, recapturing the kinetic energy and storing it back in the battery. Electric motors will outlast the body of the vehicle. Major automakers are offering warranties on the batteries of 8 years or 100,000 miles of driving.

Yes. The cleaner the power, the cleaner the car. Using solar photovolteics (PV) or wind power at your home or business makes even more sense with a plug-in car. The investment in solar panels pays off faster when the solar power is not only replacing grid electricity but replacing much more expensive gasoline. EVs typically can travel 3-4 miles (or more) per kWh of electricity. If you drive 12,000 miles per year, you will need 3,000-4,000 kWh. Depending on where you live, you will need a 1.5kW-3kW PV system to generate that much power using about 150-300 square feet of space on your roof. Utility credits for the daytime solar power can offset the cost of charging the car at night. If solar PV isn't feasible at your home, find out if your utility offers a green energy option.

To find a solar installer in your area to provide a free quote on the cost of going solar, see Find Solar.

To see if you can get green power in your area, check the U.S. Department of Energy's Buy Green Power locator.

Yes. According to an Electric Power Research Institute report, battery durability testing sponsored jointly by EPRI and Southern California Edison demonstrate that current lithium-ion batteries are likely to retain sufficient capacity for more than 3,000 dynamic deep-discharge cycles (about 10-12 years of typical driving.) Major automakers are offering 8-year, 100,000-mile warranties on the batteries of today's plug-in vehicles. Put lots of batteries in a car -- as in the Tesla Roadster -- and you can drive 250 miles on a charge. As with any new technology, the cost of EV batteries will become even more affordable once they're in mass production. Research continues to explore multiple newer battery chemistries that promise an exciting future for plug-in vehicles.


That depends on the size of the car, the size of the battery, and how you choose to drive. As with any car, the larger and heavier the vehicle, the lower the efficiency.

If you have a PHEV with a 40-mile range in EV mode, and you rarely
drive more than 40 miles without charging, you would almost never need
gas. Your gas mileage could improve to several hundred miles per gallon, plus electricity. Using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's standard formulas to calculate fuel economy, the Chevy Volt PHEV averages over 100 mpg,
CNet's Cartech blog reports. If you choose to run the Volt on nothing but gasoline, fuel economy would drop to about 48 miles per gallon.

Alternatively, in an all-electric car, you'll never buy gas. For most people, an EV with a 100-mile range between recharging will be sufficient. For those that routinely drive long distances, a PHEV may be the best choice.


A plug-in hybrid (PHEV) is like a conventional hybrid, but with two important differences: larger battery capacity, and the ability to plug in to the electrical grid to recharge the batteries instead of being dependent on gasoline.

Instead of a battery with a capacity of less than 2 kWh of power like the gasoline-dependent Toyota Prius hybrid (which allows perhaps a mile or two of electric driving), the plug-in Prius slated to go on sale in late 2011 will have a larger battery enabling approximately 13 miles of electric driving. The Chevy Volt has 16 kWh of battery capacity on board, 8 kWh of which is available at any one time, enabling the car to drive like a fully electric vehicle for up to 40 miles before the gas engine turns on.


Electric vehicles (EVs) can meet the driving needs of many people, as proven by a decade of experience in driving EVs by the founders of Plug In America and other EV drivers. In the United States, well over 90% of drivers average less than 100 miles, the range of most vehicles in both the previous and current generations of EVs. Data from the U.S. Department of Transportation shows that most Americans average less than 30 miles per day. (See graph, below.) The occasional long-distance drive can be done with a second car that is a plug-in hybrid (PHEV), by access to vehicles in car-share services, or by renting or borrowing another vehicle.

Not at all. Plugging in literally takes less than 5 seconds of your time. There is no going out of your way to a gas station and jockeying for a pump. You can charge anywhere there is an electric outlet. Most EV drivers plug in when they get home and forget about the car until the next morning, when the fully charged car is waiting for them. The car's timer allows the car to recharge the battery overnight while the driver sleeps, at times of low electricity rates. Plus, thousands of public charging stations will be installed over the next few years to make it easy to add charge on trips away from home, too.

We won't need additional generating capacity in the U.S. electrical grid for plug-in cars for decades to come. During that time we can shift to cleaner, renewable power options that cause less environmental harm than fossil fuels and nuclear plants.

The existing electrical grid's off-peak capacity for power generation is sufficient to power 73% of commutes to and from work by cars, light trucks, SUVs, and vans without building a single new power plant if people drive plug-in hybrids, according to the U.S. Department of Energy. In addition, the existing nighttime electricity could be stored in plug-in vehicles and retrieved during peak-demand hours through vehicle-to-grid technology for use by the grid, helping to meet society's daytime power needs.

New power generation facilities should focus on clean, renewable sources such as wind, solar, biomass, and geothermal power. Combine these with the institution of energy efficiency measures throughout society, and we can meet the targets needed to avoid the worst effects of global warming without resorting to more coal or nuclear plants, according to the 2007 report Tackling Climate Change.

Even today, with more than 50% of U.S. power coming from dirty coal plants, plug-in cars reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and most other pollutants compared with other vehicle types.

You don't need to take our word for it -- read the summary of more than 40 studies, analyses, and presentations on this topic.

EVs also allow you to use 100% clean renewable electricity from sources such as the sun or wind, eliminating emissions entirely. Getting more plug-ins on the road will incentivize our society to move more rapidly to replace fossil-fueled power plants with clean and renewable generating methods. EVs get cleaner as the electrical grid gets cleaner. Gas cars only get dirtier as they age. 

Read more in Electricity for Cars.

Three words: Cheaper. Cleaner. Domestic.

Cheaper: Electricity is much cheaper than gasoline (about a third of the current cost of
gas) and electric cars require next to no maintenance. (No oil changes, no muffler, no catalytic converter, etc. etc.)

Cleaner: Even on today's mainly coal-fired electrical grid, driving on electricity is cleaner than driving on gasoline. Read more in our FAQ asking, "What about overall emissions, including the car and the power plant?" Plus, plug-in vehicles give you the option of driving on renewable electricity sources such as solar, wind, or geothermal energy. Driving on electricity produces less of the pollution that sickens and kills hundreds of thousands of Americans each year.

Domestic: Electricity is made in the U.S.A. By driving an EV, you don't have to give your money to oil companies,
the politicians they support, and the foreign tyrants who control the oil supply.

Bonus: Plug-in cars are quiet, convenient, and fun to drive!